Cabbage is one of the most common types of vegetables in our country. Humanity mastered its cultivation many centuries ago, a significant part of our dishes include this ingredient. Both ordinary villagers for personal use and large agricultural complexes for mass sale are engaged in cabbage cultivation. And this is partly due to the very high demand for this product – annual sales only confirm this. Therefore, it is not so difficult for entrepreneurs to find points of sale for grown cabbage. All of the above has a positive effect on the threshold of entry for aspiring entrepreneurs.
According to the legislation, it is determined that a farm must own at least 1 hectare of land – smaller land areas are not subject to registration as an object of entrepreneurial activity and are considered a personal subsidiary farm. In the second case, there is no need to keep tax records, and the crops grown on such a site are mainly intended for personal use (some sell grown vegetables, fruits and berries in markets or on the side of roads). But a farm that grows on an industrial scale is already necessarily registered as a peasant farm. Although no one forbids you to register as a legal entity or individual entrepreneur. According to OKPD 2 (All-Russian Classifier of Products by Types of Economic Activity), code No. 01.13.1 “Vegetable, salad or green crops” is used.
After solving the registration aspects, you should proceed to the search for land for sowing. Almost any soil (not counting soils with a high content of sand and gravel) is suitable for ordinary garden cabbage. Cabbage is a moisture-loving crop , so it is best to provide it with soil that retains moisture well. The acidity should be moderately or weakly acidic, so as not to provoke some crop diseases. Almost all cabbage varieties grow well, even in soils with a high alkaline content.
Do not forget that any cabbage grows poorly in the soil on which cabbage, turnip, mustard and similar crops were sown before. This often leads to a number of diseases, and they also become more “tasty” targets for pests.
Taking into account all of the above, it is necessary to purchase about 5 hectares of land for a significant harvest. Please note that the most profitable enterprise with minimal risks is your own diversified multidisciplinary farm. This means that it is worth sowing not only cabbage – after a few years it is better to change the location for sowing, and use the vacated territory for sowing some other crop.
If the area permits, you can start growing not only vegetables, but also fruit trees, cereals, or even organize your own apiary. You can also try yourself in animal husbandry – you can use the grown crops to create feed. In total, the ideal option is to grow cabbage and other crops together.
The average cost of an annual lease of 1 hectare of land is 3.5-5 thousand rubles. (the region and proximity to cities have a great influence).
Varieties of cabbage
The Cabbage (Cruciferous) family covers a wide range of different plants (most of them do not even look like cabbage, however, they are widely used in many industries). Of course, the most common of them is cabbage and its varieties: Brussels sprouts, broccoli and others. It is widely used by humans as food and forage crops. You will not find oilseeds in this family – the seed is too small with a minimum percentage of fat.
Also used in the medical industry (in particular, for the manufacture of various drugs), pharmaceuticals. It is used to prevent a number of diseases. Humanity has been growing cabbage for more than one century, for this reason you can find a huge number of varieties specially bred for specific needs, weather conditions and soil. When growing these crops, both classical (tractors, plows and walk-behind tractors) and special equipment – combines are used. You can buy it, or you can rent it.
The most widespread variety in our country. It is classified as Cabbage. It is easiest to grow and sell. A 2-year-old plant that looks like a bush with wide leaves. Only cabbage leaves and heads of cabbage are valuable.
Cabbage is very rarely sown in pre-prepared soil – most often, seedlings are harvested 1-2 months before the establishment of positive temperatures. You can get them from the grains, or you can purchase them at a specialty store. For 1 ha, about 6 kg of seeds will be required, the cost of 1 kg of seeds is 100-1200.
Seedlings are germinated either in greenhouses or at home. Before planting crops, leave them for a short while in a place with a slight subzero temperature – the so-called “acclimatization”. After preparation, they are transferred to the previously prepared soil (which is already loosened, moistened and fertilized). For fertilization, a mix of organic and inorganic is perfect.
In the first week (in some cases this is done more often), the culture must be watered abundantly. Then the watering frequency can be reduced, while leaving it at a high level.
From 5 hectares of land, you can harvest about 125 tons of cabbage. The average cost per 1 kg is 8 rubles. Total, we get 8 rubles / kg * 125,000 kg = 1 million rubles. At the same time, about 25 tons per hectare is the yield of early varieties of cabbage – mid- and late-ripening varieties have a standard indicator – 50 tons. Naturally, their cost will be higher.
In parallel with growing cabbage, you can start pickling it. Note that in addition to white cabbage, a large number of other varieties can be grown, which are gradually gaining popularity, and some of them are considered by buyers as a separate crop that has nothing to do with ordinary cabbage.
A striking example of this is cauliflower. It is often used as a dietary supplement. Its inflorescences are used for food; moreover, they are fried, stewed, they are a component of vegetable mixtures. Cauliflower differs from white cabbage in higher requirements for the composition of the soil. For its seedlings, special conditions are required, the growing season is longer. Elsewhere, the cultivation process is almost the same.
Many consider it a separate vegetable. But from the point of view of botany, it is a species of the Cabbage family. The cultivation method is almost the same as the cultivation of ordinary cabbage. Brussels sprouts are grown only in seedlings. The average cost of 1 kg of Brussels sprouts is 300-400 rubles, the cost of seed material for seedlings is 6.5-8 thousand rubles. She tolerates arid conditions a little better (due to a more powerful rhizome), although she also loves moisture. This variety has increased resistance to temperature extremes. The growing season is mid-late November – therefore, sometimes the culture is transferred to greenhouse conditions for ripening.
A distinctive feature of white cabbage from Brussels sprouts is its size. The first one grows as 1 head of cabbage, while the second one consists of a large number of small heads of cabbage. Productivity – 22 tons per hectare. Accordingly, the yield for 5 hectares is 110 tons. At the same time, its cost is an order of magnitude higher than for white cabbage – about 75-100 rubles / 1 kg. Estimated profit – 8 million rubles. with a good harvest with a minimum percentage of rejects.
What distinguishes broccoli from cabbage is that it is a 1-year-old crop (cabbage and Brussels sprouts are 2-year-olds). Among the shortcomings, one can note a very small frame for harvesting. This is because if you overexpose broccoli, the flower will begin to bloom, and it gives a not quite marketable appearance for the food crop . It also loses its beneficial properties relatively quickly. It is also much more difficult to store it – it will be necessary to purchase powerful freezers in case of long-term storage or to sell the harvested crop as quickly as possible.
The shelf life of the collected inflorescences is no more than 2 weeks. For this reason, it is necessary to organize sales channels in advance (preferably a few months before the harvest). Most experienced growers use the following method of selling crops:
- The client comes to your lands on his own;
- He also cuts a certain number of plants. Naturally, with the use of appropriate equipment, without using the manual labor of the consumer.
To maintain such an unstable state of broccoli, additional irrigation can be used in particularly dry weather conditions. In terms of profitability, broccoli is almost identical to Brussels sprouts. The only difference is that broccoli has a higher yield – about 25 tons per hectare. At the same time, growing broccoli will come out a little more expensive.
The Cabbage (or Cruciferous) family has been used by mankind for many centuries and is used in various industries. Cabbage and cabbage varieties are widely used as a food crop as an everyday and dietary component of many dishes. Even despite the huge difference in the cost of white cabbage, Brussels sprouts and broccoli, it can be noted that it is the first variety that is easiest to grow. At the same time, revenues are also high, since the demand for it is huge.
Nowadays, such types of cabbage as broccoli and Brussels sprouts are gaining popularity. The reason for this is the massive transition of the population to a healthy diet, and these varieties are an excellent dietary product.