Starting capital – from 5.5 million rubles.
According to OKP, synthetic cleaning agents are:
- Multifunctional products designed for washing / cleaning various products (linen, cotton and other fabrics, as well as fabrics of artificial and synthetic origin);
- Specialized means (including for household use).
In addition, they are classified according to their initial state of aggregation. Funds are allocated solid, liquid, in the form of powder and paste. In terms of production volumes, the leading positions are occupied by granular detergents (produced in the form of powder), because they are the most concentrated and, therefore, more effective. The technological process is relatively simple, expensive packaging is not required, high demand among the population. Cleaning agents that are produced in tablets are almost never produced in Russia.
However, experts assure that the future lies precisely with detergents produced in tablet form, since they have a number of undeniable advantages:
- Ease of use;
- Possibility of accurate dosage;
The tablet often consists of two or more layers – this makes it possible to adjust the speed and other parameters of dissolution of each of them. For example, if 1-layer tablets can dissolve evenly and at a high rate, then in multilayer tablets, enzymes – enzymes will first dissolve at a low temperature range, and when heated, oxygen-containing bleaches will be released. Such a complex complex significantly increases the effectiveness of the cleaning agent. Among the disadvantages of the technological process for the production of “tablets” can be noted high energy consumption, since at the last production stages, the compressed components must be dried at a high temperature range in order to remove excess moisture. The 2nd place in terms of economy in application is taken by liquid products. Such products do not contain bleaches, enzymes and chemical alkalis. On the one hand, this can be an advantage because (compared to washing powders) they are more hypoallergenic. On the other hand, the cleaning / washing efficiency drops significantly. Cleaning products in the form of a paste can contain up to 35% moisture. In composition, they are almost indistinguishable from powders. The only significant difference is the elimination of unstable chemical bleaches. In composition, they are almost indistinguishable from powders. The only significant difference is the elimination of unstable chemical bleaches. In composition, they are almost indistinguishable from powders. The only significant difference is the elimination of unstable chemical bleaches.
Synthetic cleaning agents are available in different varieties:
- Without the use of peroxide compounds and biological additives;
- With biological additives;
- With peroxide compounds;
- For different types of fabric;
- With the addition of anti-shedding polymers;
- With various flavors, etc.
Granular products can be of different compositions. There are means of the following types: anionic, nonionic surfactants with additional reagents. While the former are intended for washing and washing / cleaning cotton and linen fabrics, the latter are intended for synthetic products.
Modern detergents / cleaners are complex chemical complexes consisting of many components. Detergents are based on synthetic components that increase the ability to form foam and emulsify and reduce surface tension. The key ingredient can be anionic, amphoteric, cationic and nonionic surfactants. Their distinctive features are high cleaning action and biodegradability. The higher these indicators, the more effective the cleaning agent will have. Dissociation of anionic surfactants in water occurs with decomposition into a hydrophobic anion, which has a detergent effect, and an inorganic cation, which allows it to dissolve in water. For example, olefin sulfonate has good cleaning performance even in water with high hardness.
Also, olefin sulfonate hydroxide, fatty organic acid sulfonates, fatty organic alcohol sulfates, alkyl sulfate compounds are added to detergents. The latter “ingredients” are mainly used in European countries and the USA – in Russia they are not yet very popular, even despite the fact that they have good degradability and high cleaning power. Amphoteric surfactants (such as carboxy betaine) are included in many foaming agents (including various shampoos). Non-ionic surfactants are ethylated 1-fatty organic alcohols characterized by high biodegradability and high wetting ability. Among the disadvantages can be noted the low stability (stability) of the foam, as well as weak foaming. Cationic surfactants are manufactured in smaller volumes compared to anionic and nonionic substances, but they have a number of advantages. The most common of these are 4-base bases with an ammonium cation. These surfactants act as antistatic components, corrosion inhibitors, water repellents and emulsifiers.
Naturally, in addition to surfactants, cleaning agents include a huge number of other components. For example, liquid products are made from a base, washing bio-enhancers (to better break down various bio-contaminants), alkaline-based washing intensifiers, complexing agents (to prevent excess limescale in the washing installation), oxygen-containing bleach, and final treatment components.
At first glance, it may seem that similar components are used in the production of shampoos. You can familiarize yourself with this business plan in our article “ Shampoo Production and Marketing Business ”.
The manufacturing process can be divided into the following stages:
- Composite mixture preparation;
At the first stage, surfactants are mixed with useful components. It turns out a heterogeneous solution. To achieve homogeneity, the solution is passed through a special installation – a colloidal mill. The most common method for producing powders is spray drying at high temperatures. In this case, the procedure is carried out by spraying the mixture in a drying unit at a pressure of 30-55 atm. with a temperature range of 275-375 ° C. Among the shortcomings, it can be noted: high electricity costs, the negative effect of the enterprise on the environment due to pollution with dust particles, the entry of sodium tripolyphosphate into the decomposition reaction (toxic compounds are released). An alternative method – crystallization – implies a lower temperature range.
Cleaning agents in the form of powders are produced in various ways: dry mixing in specialized mixers (disadvantage – the resulting product can contain a huge variety of dust-like fractions); spraying liquid compounds on a dry surface in a suspended state (a good alternative with less energy consumption); the same spraying, but already in mechanized mixers (not relevant today). Powder products are more expensive to manufacture than liquid detergents.
For the production of liquid products, industrial mixers are required, which are additionally equipped with a strain gauge sensor. The raw material supplied through the pipes to the loading tank of the mixer is weighed using a strain gauge system. This makes it possible to control the mass of each individual ingredient as accurately as possible. At an enterprise for the production of liquid cleaning agents, several separate lines for packaging finished products should be placed (their number may vary – it all depends on the assortment produced). There is a separate line for containers of different capacities. Each of them is additionally equipped with tanks for settling the liquid. This is done in order to prevent mixing of different mixtures with each other. In addition, there are sedimentation tanks with a capacity of up to 5 tons.
The quality of the manufactured products is influenced by many factors: the quality of the raw materials used, the technological process, the production method, the types of useful additives. The tower method can have a negative impact on the environment – for this reason, manufacturing companies are actively looking for alternative technological solutions.
Pay due attention to the packaging of the finished product. Powders for household and economic purposes weighing from 0.2 to 0.5 kilograms are packed in rectangular cardboard packages, plastic bags, polymer film. To create bright, unique packaging, you can use the services of professionals: you can hire a full-time designer or resort to the help of “freelance” designers. Remember that the profit of your business depends on the marketability of your products. So, you need to do everything so that your cleaning products do not get lost on store shelves.
Chemical plants use specialized equipment used to synthesize complex organic complexes and other compounds. Such production facilities are equipped with special production lines for mixing compositions with hydrotropic components, preventing delamination of components with different densities.
To accommodate all the necessary equipment, including molds for creating packaging containers, you need a room with an area of at least 500 square meters. It is imperative that a water supply and a three-phase voltage source be installed (many high-power installations operate exclusively from an industrial voltage of 380 V).
The monthly production capacity of an average enterprise can reach 1,000 tons of finished product. The total cost of implementing a business project is from 5.5 million rubles. The approximate payback period is 2-2.5 years. The latest crisis has put small Russian manufacturers in a rather difficult position: banks have introduced stricter rules for issuing loans to individual entrepreneurs, and shops have begun to delay payments for sold products. For these reasons, many small firms decided to end their own production and began to work with third-party enterprises in a contract form.
Both wholesalers and retail stores may be interested in high-quality cleaning products. In addition, entrepreneurs involved in cleaning carpets or cars may also be interested in your products if you intend to produce specialized products for these purposes.
Analyze the situation in your region – in any case, you will need to start with your city and region. Do not forget to try offering your goods to laundries or start an additional branch – creating your own small network. You can read how to do this in our article “ Make Yourself a Net Profit from Laundries ”.